Solutions For Election

The 2000 presidential election has turned out like none other. It has been labeled the closest election ever. That certainly appears to be the case. At first glimpse, one wonders how the outcome of this election (which is always uncertain) has anything in common at all with research findings. However, by using the research in the book Everything you think you know about politics and why you are wrong by Kathleen Hall Jamieson (2000), this isn’t the case. In fact, it seems that this election has turned out much the manner in which it could be projected to have turned out based on previous research.

The Dow through Election Day. America has now seen 28 presidential elections since the initial publication of the DJIA on May 26, 1896. In 20 of those 28 election years, the Dow posted a Y-T-D gain through Election Day. Would that it was real this year. When the market opened on November 4, 2008, the Dow was down 29.71% from its close on the final day of 2007.

The Dow in “election season”. Between Labor Day and Election Day, the Dow rose an average of 1.92% in the 27 election years between 1896 and 2004. When the incumbent President was a Republican, the Dow’s average gain between Labor Day and Election Day in those election years was approximately +0.6%. This year certainly didn’t live up to statistical expectation: the Dow closed at 11, 543.96 On August 29 (the last market day before Labor Day) and opened at 9, 323.89 on the morning of November 4 for a loss of 19.23 % Over that period.

The Election Discussion Continues…

The Dow immediately after a Presidential election. The short-term statistic is positive: on average, the DJIA has gained 1.90% between Election Day and New Year’s Day in the 27 election years past. Here are two statistics seemingly at variance with each other: when a Republican President is in office during an election year, the DJIA gain has averaged approximately 4.6% between Election Day and New Year’s Day. But when a Democrat is elected (irrespective of what party holds the White House), the Dow has averaged roughly a-0.9 % Loss between the first Tuesday in November and New Year’s Day.

Perhaps we should also discuss…

The two main party candidates have been neck and neck in the polls throughout the 2000 presidential campaign. Ralph Nader was behind those two, but with support. Pat Buchanan had even less support than Nader, and Harry Browne, of the Libertarian Party, had almost no visible support in the polls. According to Jamieson (2000)’…candidates who perform poorly in the polls are less able to garner coverage and have a tougher time increasing their visibility and with it their standing in the polls’ (p. 208). This surely seems to have influenced the media coverage of all the candidates. Bush and Gore, who were for all practical purposes tied for the lead, received the same number of coverage, and more than anybody else.


The other candidates received coverage in proportion to their percentages in the polls. Nader, 3rd in the polls, received some coverage and gained a bit more support. His numbers went up. He very nearly made it to the 5 percent of the popular vote necessary to obtain federal funds. Buchanan, however, received almost no coverage, as his standing in the polls was very low. Browne was mentioned hardly at all. He was behind all the others in the polls and received no coverage at all. As a result, it was hard for him to improve his standing, because there were very few people who even knew such a person as Harry Browne existed as a presidential candidate.

Research also suggests that when an election is ‘boring’ cover of the event falls. An exciting campaign is one where the candidates are in closer competition and there is a component of uncertainty as to the way the election will turn out. The 1996 election was seen as ‘boring,’ as President Clinton was well ahead of Bob Dole in the polls. According to Jamieson (2000) news coverage fell in the last two months of campaigning (p. 37). What a contrast that is to the 2000 election. Campaign coverage by the news media grew steadily as the race became more and more uncertain. Even now the outcome is still uncertain. On the local news there’s a story about the progress of the ballot counting each night and the news networks appear to have all day coverage of the way the election is turning out. This election has had enough twists and turns to make it seem almost soap-opera-ish. Coverage cannot help but rise with such an exciting race.

Elections! Now here is a universally awaited event, if ever there was one. And here’s the web app called election results which facilitates ready access of your desired election news. No longer do you need to remain agonizingly glued to TV to wait for the desired polling figure to flash on the monitor or for the anchor to declare the news of the exact election constituency you’re looking for. It’s but a click away.

You can view all information on election in an interactive panel that displays election results dynamically. These details of elections are graphically represented. Be it any form of election – assembly or parliament or municipality – by using the interactive web 2.0 interface, you can access its results in their graphical, easy-to-understand forms. You also get the limits of the election constituency or ward you’re interested in.

This communication of ELECTION RESULTS in maps, using the GIS, is the tendency of the day for it gives clearer picture for analysis of elections. The media of the day love it. Psephologists find this especially useful for better analysis of elections. Using GIS, better services can be rendered to citizens during elections as well.

A close race also affects voter turnout. There was an increase of voter turnout this year in contrast to the last election when voter turnout was rather low. Voter turnout is also higher when there is contrast advertising and coverage of contrasting issues by the news media. ‘ Contrast advertising…increases both voter share and increase turnout’ (Jamieson, 2000, p. 113). When voters see a difference in the questions, they’re more likely to go out and vote for a person who is more closely aligned with their views. Each of the candidates made an attempt to show how they were different from the others during this campaign. While Bush and Gore highlighted their different tax plans, and variances in their approaches to social security, Nader was pointing out how he was different from both of them. As a result, voter turnout for Ralph Nader was somewhat high, considering. Even though he did not 5% of the popular vote nationally, he did get it in a number of the states, including Utah. Voter turnout among Republicans was higher as well. The race was close. Bush’s efforts to paint himself as different from Gore seemed to encourage them to go out and save the country. Voter turnout was high among Democrats as well. The closeness of the race, and the speed which Bush caught up to Gore prior to the first presidential debate was used as a goad to lift them out to save the country.

Research suggests also that attacks tend to turn off voters to the sponsoring candidate, while showing contrast tends to favor the sponsoring candidate. All-in-all, this was not a negative campaign. While the primary opponents attacked the other’s proposed policies, personal attacks were rather minimal. Each candidate attacked by showing differences, for the more part. This prevented voters from becoming apathetic about the election because of ‘negative campaigning. ‘

So, while this election is different than any other, the outcome was largely predictable. With newscasters touting that this election could very well pose a Constitutional crisis, and announcing that it’d be a close race, this election is par for the course. The polls showed neither of the major party candidates with a definitive lead. Predictions were of no clear winner. As shown in Jamieson (2000) the polls are usually reflective of how much coverage is given and in return how much one advances in the polls. It is obvious that throughout this election that the polls and media coverage has been about even, and now the outcome of this election is always in question. There has been more media coverage of this election, supporting the research that a close and ‘exciting’ election garners more coverage. It is still receiving unheard-of amounts of coverage. Voter turnout for this election was fairly high, due to those turning out to vote for Nader (who emphasized his difference from both candidates) and those coming to vote for either Bush or Gore, depending on whose view of taxes and social insurance was preferred. The outcome of this election largely supports research done on presidential campaigns.

Jamieson, K. (2000). Everything you think you know about politics and why you are wrong. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Cash Flow Statement Updates

Accounting statements provide an accurate view of an organization at any point in time. Understanding them requires some special knowledge of common accounting practices.

A statement of cash flows is an accounting tool used to accurately reflect actual money flowing into an organization. The income statement is an inadequate measure of cash flow as it contains several common non-cash flow items by itself. A cash flow is usually money introduced into the firm by its normal operations. Assuming that income represents a cash flow results in an inaccurate measure of a business’s worth. This can lead investors to make suboptimal investment decisions.

However, there are differing opinions about cash flow statement

Non-cash items on an income statement aren’t taken from a cash flow. A non-cash item is a modification of income from a cash flow out of the current reporting period. Often, Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) allow for a portion of an expense to be realized in another time period than when the actual expense took place.

Hot Topic: Cash Flow Statement

The most common non-cash item on an income statement is depreciation of an asset. Depreciation is the distribution of an expense over the life of an asset. For example, if a company buys a computer to assist in its normal operations, the computer can not only be expensed in the time period under which it was purchased. This is because a computer usually has a life of more than 1 year and is thus considered a long-term asset. The value of a prolonged-term asset is depreciated over the framework of its life, typically four to six years, and shows up on the statement of operations as incremental expenses. Note that the full award for the computer was paid for at the time of the purchase. However, the recognition of its decrease in value is computed over the life of the asset. To account for a greater decrease in value nearer to the start of the asset’s life as compared to the end, an accelerated depreciation schedule is often employed to more accurately represent the asset’s current value.

The balance sheet shows only the book values of assets, owners’ equity, and liabilities. It doesn’t show any cash inflows or outflows the company experienced during the period in question. Income statements often show non-cash items so they’re not reliable indicators of a company’s cash position. Liquidity in a house is important to investors because it represents an important part of a company’s profitability. Cash, the most liquid asset, is the least risky asset a company can own because its value can be achieved almost immediately without loss of value due to friction or conversion costs. The Statement of Cash Flows is the only document of the three that shows accurate measurements of the flow both in and outside of a firm of the more liquid asset, cash.

The accrual method of accounting states that income is recorded when it is earned, not necessarily when a cash flow has occurred as when a product is sold or a service rendered. For example, suppose that a company contracts with a department store chain to sell 1, 000 boxes of its product. Often, the surrender of the product to the vendor will occur before payment is made. In the accrual method, the cash flow that is owed the manufacturer shows up on the statement of operations as income even before the cash flow actually takes place. Consequently, the income statement can not be seen as a statement of cash flows.

A statement of cash flows is an accurate measure of the actual money a company received from normal operations. This statement as compared to the income statement is invaluable to an investor when determining the cost effectiveness of a company. Unfortunately, the income statement is often taken to represent actual money flowing into an organization. Companies with vast investments in long-term assets have much more difference between the income statement and the state of the cash flows because of massive amounts of depreciation. Also, companies who offer long-term payment plans often have large distortions as well because the accrual method allows for the inclusion of income before any money actually changes hands.

Budget: Not Black And White

Sure we all like to kick the term ‘budget’ around a lot, but just exactly is one? It turns out that the most effective way to think of a budget is to picture it as being a plan. Admittedly it’s a plan that’s based on money.

Your company has objectives that they wish to accomplish during the upcoming year. These objectives filter down to the IT department and then travel even farther down to your IT team. Creating budgets is a portion of the leadership responsibilities that you have as an IT manager. The budget that you’re called upon to create is basically your plan for how your IT team is going to accomplish your share of the company’s objectives for this year.

A Parade Of Budget Information

Ultimately, the budget that you create is where the ‘rubber meets the road’ – those lofty strategic goals that the management guys running the show dreamed up get boiled down into a specific action plan when you create your team’s budget.

If a budget is a plan, so, it’s purpose for being isn’t to serve on a shelf. Rather, the reason that you go to the effort of the creation of a budget is to give yourself with a tool that you can then use to help your dream team accomplish things this year.

The budget that you create is going to have four primary functions. Each of these functions is going to have a role in helping your team to make progress towards achieving its objectives.

Planning: What would any budget creation process be without planning? There are 3 steps that go into planning your next IT budget. The first is to choose your team’s goals. You need tell me what you want to accomplish. Next you need to assess your options and predict your results. Not all of your options are in the same way and each has a different possible outcome. Finally, you need to pick an option. Use your analysis of the different costs and benefits associated with all of your options and pick the option that has the best opportunity of allowing you to accomplish your goal.

Coordinating & Communicating: It’s a good bet that your IT team will not be working on a single project during the upcoming year. Multiple projects means that you will be needing to have multiple budgets. Ultimately, each of these individual budgets will need to be grouped together and merged into one budget for your team. Coordination is needed in order to make sure that you have gotten all of the different pieces and parts that you will need. Communication will be required as you make sure that your computer’s plans will mesh well with the plans of other teams in your department.

Monitoring: All too often new IT managers believe that an IT team’s budget is just something I think you throw together in the early part of the year and then do not look at again until you start to place the following year’s budget together. It turns out that a budget is an instrument that you can use to monitor your team’s progress. This is done by comparing your team’s actual results with the budget that you created. If things start to go off track, then it is your job as a manager to take corrective actions.

Evaluating: Ultimately how good of a manager you’re can be evaluated by adopting a look at how well your team lived up to the plan that you laid out for them in your budget. Your performance will be reviewed by comparing the actual results of your staff to the budget that you created for a specific period.

Perhaps the most obvious of budgeting goals is that of control and evaluation. Budgeting allows a company to have a certain amount of control over costs, such as not allowing several types of expenses to take place only if they weren’t budgeted for, or assigning responsibility for these expenses. A budget also gives a company a benchmark by which to evaluate departments, business units, and even individual managers.

Unfortunately this purpose of budgeting can cause employees to have negative feelings about the budgeting process because their compensation and, in certain cases, their jobs, may be dependent on meeting certain budgeting goals. This is particularly true in companies that focus on the evaluation purpose of budgeting and when the budgeting is a top-down process, rather than a participative one.

Planning is another purpose of budgeting, and is arguably its primary purpose. Budgeting allows a business to provide an assessment of revenue and expenses from the preceding period, and judge where the company will be in future periods. It also allows the organization to add and remove the goods and services from its plan for the future period. In larger organizations, the budgeting process may be supplemented by individual business units and compiled to form a master budget for the organization. This allows top management to get an idea of the entire business so they’re able to better plan accordingly.

Other goals that an organization may use its budget to meet that are less obvious include communication and motivation. Budgets allow management to communicate goals and to encourage goal congruence so resources can be coordinated and focused in key areas. Budgets also allow a company to move its employees by involving them in the budget. While top-down budgeting doesn’t accomplish this goal very effectively, participative budgeting can be motivating. When an employee is engaged in creating his or her department’s budget, that person will be most likely to strive to meet that budget.

Although business budgeting is a process that most businesses go through, it can become a greater tool than many people (and businesses) realize. The budgeting process can allow companies to communicate and meet their goals, and to enable them to monitor those achievements as well. It is also an important stage in overall business strategic planning.

When you’re asked to set up a budget for your IT team, there is no reason why you to panic. Instead, you need to realise that what you’re really called upon to do is to develop a plan for how your team is going to have a role in helping the company to attain its objectives for the upcoming year.

The budget that you create is a plan. This means that you will be able to use it to make sure that your team will be in a position to successfully accomplish its goals this year. Your plan will help you do planning for your team, coordinate the funding of multiple projects while communicating with other teams in your department, monitoring the progress of your staff, and having your performance evaluated.


You should consider renovating your cooking area as soon as in every 6 to 7 years, because otherwise your cooking area will certainly begin looking dull and out of the area. There are many benefits of renovating a kitchen.

You would not stop to appreciate your cooking area, once it is renovated and tiled with color tones and designs.

One essential thing that needs to be kept in mind is that when you are preparing to refurbish your cooking area, you have to keep the majority of the spending plan for your kitchen area cabinets. This is due to the fact that they make up the most part of any contemporary kitchen. Kitchen area cabinets have the tendency to substantially arrange things in the kitchen area, by using up just a percentage of area in the kitchen area and storing a great deal of things within.

Broadening The Cabinet Circle

When you have a cooking area restoration it is essential that you think about cabinets thoroughly as they are what will take up most of the space in your kitchen area. Cabinets are the spaces where you will store items, for example, and this is rue whether they are low down cabinets around the ground in your kitchen or whether they are the cooking area cabinets attached greater up around the top of your cooking area. In short, your kitchen cabinets will be vital for seeing to it that you are able to prevent your kitchen being fulled of pots and pans and kettles on the sideboards.

Here’s some more random cabinet thoughts…..

What also makes your kitchen area cabinets important, of course, is the truth that the counter tops are going to depend on the cabinets– they are in truth going to be developed on top of the cabinets and without this you will not have anywhere to work and learn.

The Best Part Of Cabinet

Of course, if your budget is rather restrictive and you are cautious this can be a good way to get your cooking area cabinets for less expensive.

You must be mindful while selecting an appropriate cooking area cabinet for yourself when you go to the market. You will certainly be flooded with options over the various cabinet door designs, colors, wood, finishes and storage capacities of each of the designer cabinets.

Today you will certainly discover various department stores and home design stores offering various different types of kitchen area cabinets. You should only opt for the finest one which has a variety of selections to choose from. Apart from this, there are various stores that offer you free setup services after buying a kitchen cabinet. You can go with such stores too, because it will conserve a lot on your budget.

You need to take the measurements of your kitchen area size, which of the cabinet areas, so that you can discuss them accordingly while you head out shopping for kitchen cabinets. You need to know what type of cooking area cabinet will suit your cooking area design. If you totally refurbish your kitchen area, then you can choose a style for your cooking area, then adhere to it, while selecting the cooking area cabinets and shelves, so that you get the right look.

You need to run a quality examine the kitchen cabinet that you pick. By quality check we suggest, the kind of wood that is utilized in the building of the cabinet, the kinds of door knobs in addition to the shelves installed in it.

Examine if the varnish is appropriately done over the entire kitchen cabinet. You ought to also provide proper focus on the details of the cooking area cabinet, including the racks and the beneficial shelves and pockets provided in the cabinet.